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Astronomers Find Variations in the Initial Mass Function IMF

Astronomers Find Variations in the Initial Mass Function IMF

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A comparison of popular stellar initial mass functions (courtesy of Ivan Baldry).

Prestellar core mass function in molecular clouds compared to the initial stellar mass function. Figure from reference [15].

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Constraining the Thin Disc Initial Mass Function using Galactic Classical Cepheids [GA]

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Schematic illustration of the challenge of constraining the low-mass IMF. Observations sample the

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The parametrization of the high-mass IMF slope, α3, as a function of

The cummulative IMFs produced by Calculations 1 (solid line) and 3 (dotted line

Realizations of the initial stellar mass function (IMF), with different permutations of its

SDSS-IV MaNGA: The Spatially Resolved Stellar Initial Mass Function in $\sim$400 Early-Type Galaxies [GA]

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ParikhEtAl-1803.08515_f37.jpg

Galaxy structure from multiple tracers: III. Radial variations in M87's IMF [GA]

Initial mass function (IMF) for the stars and brown dwarfs formed in the simulations

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Comparison of the B4 system mass function (solid) and the Chabrier (2003a)

... the models suggest that the dynamical evolution of the cluster is sufficient to explain the observed radial distribution of cluster stars today.

Mass functions for the α3 and α5 simulations on the left and on the right,

Velocity (in km s−1) versus primary mass (in M⊙)

Local galaxy properties as a function of photometrically estimated – Chabrier IMF equivalent – stellar mass

Left-hand panel: ratio between the initial and present-day mass of GCs

The adopted logarithmic IMF (equations 2 and 3), ξL/103, for

WeggEtAl-1706.04193_f3.jpg

The initial mass functions (IMF) of 16 young open clusters in

The peak at the low mass end may be illusory:

Standard image ...

PeacockEtAl-1705.01115_f4.jpg

The Stellar Initial Mass Function in Early-Type Galaxies From Absorption Line Spectroscopy. IV. A Super-Salpeter IMF in the center of NGC 1407 from ...

Variations of the stellar initial mass function in semi-analytical models II: the impact of Cosmic Ray regulation [GA] | arXiver

Size–stellar mass relations for late-type (left-hand panel) and

Same as in Figs 18–22, but for the Chabrier IMF. Circles,

LagattutaEtAl-1708.04621_f14.jpg

MUSE observations of M87: radial gradients for the stellar initial-mass function and the abundance of Sodium [GA] | arXiver

Mass functions. On the upper left, we show the mass function derived from the

The alpha-plot. The data show the compilation by Scalo (1998) of

PeacockEtAl-1705.01115_f2.jpg. We present constraints on variations in the initial mass function (IMF) ...

OldhamEtAl-1711.05813_f15.jpg

The Influence of Galaxy Environment on the Stellar Initial Mass Function of Early-Type Galaxies [GA] | arXiver

Is a top-heavy initial mass function needed to reproduce the submillimeter galaxy number counts? [GA]

Simulating a metallicity-dependent initial mass function: Consequences for feedback and chemical abundances [GA]

Same as in Figs 18–20, but for the modified Larson IMF. Circles

Initial mass functions. The symbols (open and filled) correspond to a single CMD

Completeness and contamination corrections to be applied to the computed IMFs, for the HST (

Cosmic SFH. Data points are from Hopkins (2004); best-fitting relation

Top-left panel: comparison of the JAM model stellar mass-to-light

Absolute magnitude in the V (top) and JWSTF150 (bottom) bands, as

Evidence of a Bottom-heavy Initial Mass Function in Massive Early-type Galaxies from Near-infrared Metal Lines [GA]

The sink mass functions for the weakly supported systems (those with αkin= Ekin/

Standard image ...

McGeeEtAl-1311.5230_f3.jpg. Several recent observational studies have concluded that the initial mass function (IMF) ...

Comparison of our stellar mass functions at 3.0 ≤z < 3.5 and 3.5 ≤z

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The high-mass slope, α3, against the normalized mass-to-light

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The same like Fig. 5, but for x = 0.50. The range of

List of models with calibrated parameters (columns 3–5) and results (columns

(Left panel) Time dependence of the UV luminosity of an SSP with initial mass 1 M⊙, formed with a Salpeter IMF in the range 0.1-100 M⊙, measured at three ...

MUSE observations of M87: radial gradients for the stellar initial-mass function and the abundance of Sodium [GA]

Comparison between the G-SSPs and the L-SSPs (thick and thin lines

Relation between M/LI and the 'driving quantity'ζ[1 − 2

For these reasons, we elected to take a Salpeter exponent for the IMF above 1 M⊙, with the aforementioned ~0.3 uncertainty.

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Histograms of (g−r) colour in bins of stellar mass for galaxies that

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The star formation efficiency, SFE =Msinks/(Mgas+ Msinks), as a

ParikhEtAl-1803.08515_f24.jpg

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The quantity 1 −Fm. This is a cumulative distribution function beginning at the bottom

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Effects on the predicted IMF of having different slopes (dN/dlog M ∝ M

Variations of the stellar initial mass function in semi-analytical models II: the impact of Cosmic Ray regulation [GA] | arXiver

The Initial Mass Function of the Inner Galaxy Measured From OGLE-III Microlensing Timescales [GA]

enter image description here

The quantity Fm (equation 3). This is similar to Fig. 2,

Effect of halo concentration on Vopt–Mstar relation for early-type (right-

Clump mass distributions for different values of x and at different scales: 100 pc (

(PST) is the 'single-slope equivalent' lower-mass limit for our IMFs (see the text). (*) Slopes x > 1.6 are formally ruled out by T97, because for steep ...

Standard image ...

Redshift evolution of the galaxy stellar mass function, as a function of the apparent $

Standard image ...

(Left panel) Time dependence of the UV luminosity of an SSP with initial mass 1 M⊙, formed with a Salpeter IMF in the range 0.1-100 M⊙, measured at three ...

Logarithmic slope of the circular velocity profile for early-type galaxies. The upper panels

The time between the formation of each object and the termination of its accretion or the

The Influence of Galaxy Environment on the Stellar Initial Mass Function of Early-Type Galaxies [GA] | arXiver

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Total baryonic M/L ratio of the model Sbc/Sc discs from Table 2

The mass function of sink particles, at four different instances, for isothermal simulation with

(M/L) versus M for both mass determinations. The data sets are

The time-averaged accretion rates of the objects formed in the calculation versus their final

Fits to the extended models, where the low-mass end of the IMF (

Standard image ...

WeggEtAl-1706.04193_f4.jpg. We use the timescale distribution ...

Standard image ...

Observationally based stellar mass functions for the solar neighbourhood, compared with the classical Salpeter IMF

Mass ranges of gravitationally unstable clumps in the regimes separated by the Jeans-like case

IMF (per unit logarithmic mass) for the simulations from fig. 2, for different turbulent fields. The Salpeter slope is shown for comparison.

A comparison of popular stellar initial mass functions (courtesy of Ivan Baldry).

Prestellar core mass function in molecular clouds compared to the initial stellar mass function. Figure from reference [15].

Download high-res image ...

LiEtAl-1703.04894_f2.jpg

Constraining the Thin Disc Initial Mass Function using Galactic Classical Cepheids [GA]

Standard image ...

SDSS-IV MaNGA: variation of the stellar initial mass function in spiral and early-type galaxies [GA]

Download high-res image ...

The parametrization of the high-mass IMF slope, α3, as a function of

Standard image ...

Download high-res image ...

Realizations of the initial stellar mass function (IMF), with different permutations of its

Galaxy structure from multiple tracers: III. Radial variations in M87's IMF [GA]

SDSS-IV MaNGA: The Spatially Resolved Stellar Initial Mass Function in $\sim$400 Early-Type Galaxies [GA]

Fraction of old populations (>5 Gyr) and mean ages derived from the mass

Left-hand panel: ratio between the initial and present-day mass of GCs

ParikhEtAl-1803.08515_f37.jpg

Mass functions for the α3 and α5 simulations on the left and on the right,

Initial mass function (IMF) for the stars and brown dwarfs formed in the simulations

Standard image ...

WeggEtAl-1706.04193_f3.jpg

PeacockEtAl-1705.01115_f4.jpg

The peak at the low mass end may be illusory:

The initial mass functions (IMF) of 16 young open clusters in

The adopted logarithmic IMF (equations 2 and 3), ξL/103, for

Figure ...

LagattutaEtAl-1708.04621_f14.jpg

Stellar masses obtained from the derived M/L ratios with different IMF slopes. Note

Same as in Figs 18–22, but for the Chabrier IMF. Circles,

FontanotEtAl-1606.01908_f4.jpg

Star formation histories for the very massive galaxy NGC 4472, the massive elliptical NGC 4473

Astronomers Find Variations in the Initial Mass Function (IMF) | Space | Pinterest

The Stellar Initial Mass Function in Early-Type Galaxies From Absorption Line Spectroscopy. IV. A Super-Salpeter IMF in the center of NGC 1407 from ...

KINETyS: Constraining spatial variations of the stellar initial mass function in early-type galaxies [GA]

s-c-i-guy: “ X-ray telescopes find black hole may be a neutrino factory The giant black hole at the center of the Milky Way may be producing mysterious ...

Evidence of a Bottom-heavy Initial Mass Function in Massive Early-type Galaxies from Near-infrared Metal Lines [GA]

The alpha-plot. The data show the compilation by Scalo (1998) of

Mass functions. On the upper left, we show the mass function derived from the

MUSE observations of M87: radial gradients for the stellar initial-mass function and the abundance of Sodium [GA] | arXiver

... the models suggest that the dynamical evolution of the cluster is sufficient to explain the observed radial distribution of cluster stars today.

Accretion in stellar clusters and the initial mass function - MNRAS

Is a top-heavy initial mass function needed to reproduce the submillimeter galaxy number counts? [GA]

Local galaxy properties as a function of photometrically estimated – Chabrier IMF equivalent – stellar mass

PeacockEtAl-1705.01115_f2.jpg. We present constraints on variations in the initial mass function (IMF) ...

OldhamEtAl-1711.05813_f15.jpg

Simulating a metallicity-dependent initial mass function: Consequences for feedback and chemical abundances [GA]

Evolution of the ratio of high-mass SFR to stellar mass, for the evolving

Standard image ...

Initial mass functions. The symbols (open and filled) correspond to a single CMD

Completeness and contamination corrections to be applied to the computed IMFs, for the HST (

Purely statistical variation of α in the six mass ranges (equation 4) for different

ZFIRE: Using h$α$ equivalent widths to investigate the in situ initial mass function at z~2 [GA]

Cosmic SFH. Data points are from Hopkins (2004); best-fitting relation

Velocity (in km s−1) versus primary mass (in M⊙)

Top-left panel: comparison of the JAM model stellar mass-to-light

Standard image ...

The sink mass functions for the weakly supported systems (those with αkin= Ekin/

McGeeEtAl-1311.5230_f3.jpg. Several recent observational studies have concluded that the initial mass function (IMF) ...

Comparison of our stellar mass functions at 3.0 ≤z < 3.5 and 3.5 ≤z

The high-mass slope, α3, against the normalized mass-to-light

Download high-res image ...

The same like Fig. 5, but for x = 0.50. The range of

Same as in Figs 18–20, but for the modified Larson IMF. Circles

FontanotEtAl-1606.01908_f7.jpg

MUSE observations of M87: radial gradients for the stellar initial-mass function and the abundance of Sodium [GA]

(Left panel) Time dependence of the UV luminosity of an SSP with initial mass 1 M⊙, formed with a Salpeter IMF in the range 0.1-100 M⊙, measured at three ...

Relation between M/LI and the 'driving quantity'ζ[1 − 2

For these reasons, we elected to take a Salpeter exponent for the IMF above 1 M⊙, with the aforementioned ~0.3 uncertainty.

Standard image ...

SarziEtAl-1711.08980_f9.jpg

ParikhEtAl-1803.08515_f24.jpg

Star formation histories derived for the galaxies in our high-quality sample. The IMF

The quantity 1 −Fm. This is a cumulative distribution function beginning at the bottom

Effects on the predicted IMF of having different slopes (dN/dlog M ∝ M

Download high-res image ...

enter image description here

The Initial Mass Function of the Inner Galaxy Measured From OGLE-III Microlensing Timescales [GA]

The quantity Fm (equation 3). This is similar to Fig. 2,

Clump mass distributions for different values of x and at different scales: 100 pc (

(PST) is the 'single-slope equivalent' lower-mass limit for our IMFs (see the text). (*) Slopes x > 1.6 are formally ruled out by T97, because for steep ...

Evidence for a systematically changing IMF. The present-day star formation (pdsf)

NanayakkaraEtAl-1703.04536_f32.jpg

Redshift evolution of the galaxy stellar mass function, as a function of the apparent $

Standard image ...

Standard image ...

Logarithmic slope of the circular velocity profile for early-type galaxies. The upper panels

(Left panel) Time dependence of the UV luminosity of an SSP with initial mass 1 M⊙, formed with a Salpeter IMF in the range 0.1-100 M⊙, measured at three ...

Variations of the initial mass function in semi-analytical models: implications for the chemical enrichment of galaxies in the GAEA model [GA]

The mass function of sink particles, at four different instances, for isothermal simulation with

Fits to the extended models, where the low-mass end of the IMF (

Standard image ...

Standard image ...

Mass ranges of gravitationally unstable clumps in the regimes separated by the Jeans-like case

Observationally based stellar mass functions for the solar neighbourhood, compared with the classical Salpeter IMF

WeggEtAl-1706.04193_f4.jpg. We use the timescale distribution ...

IMF (per unit logarithmic mass) for the simulations from fig. 2, for different turbulent fields. The Salpeter slope is shown for comparison.

On the shape and evolution of a cosmic ray regulated galaxy-wide stellar initial mass function [GA]

... initial stellar mass function (IMF). Figure 3.

Trough hexagon IFU spectra bundles, astronomers can observe the spectra of a galaxy at its different regions. The left part of the figure showsa single ...